Please Follow directions or I will dispute Please answer original forum with a minimum of 250 words and respond to both students separately with a minimum of 100 words each Page 1 Original Forum with References page 2 Lyle response with references page 3 Heath response with references Original Forum What aspect of Maritime Cyber Security concerns you the most? What type of cyber events would have significant impact on the day to day operation of a port? Student response lyle The most concerning for me are the malware that can cause damage in the physical world and possibly kill people, such as the Triton attack on the Saudi critical infrastructure (Giles, 2020). I do think these types of attacks are less likely to happen in the U.S. unless we are in a full conventional war with another country. However, even attacks that are not that malicious can have a serious impact. They don’t need to control the ports or remotely control the ships to cause harm. All they need is to cause enough problems where the port computers are not able to function and it takes weeks for computer experts to get them back up and running. Just a few weeks of the Los Angeles / Long Beach port being shutdown would hurt the economy bad. These types of attacks we have seen at places like hospitals, where they simply lock everyone out from being able to use the computers and then demand money (Balakrishnan, 2016). They don’t need to control machinery in the hospitals or anything crazy like that, they just need to lock the computers. If the cranes, shipping containers and everything involved at the port are run on computers, then locking everyone out of them would shut the port down. This is the most likely scenario in a cyber-attack. I think the more malicious types of malware that are designed to explode a facility will be saved for other targets that make are large explosion such as a fuel facility. However, LNG’s could be targeted with this type of malware with devastating effects if it was detonated in a port. Most likely we will see an attack that takes the computers offline before we see an attack that is meant to explode an LNG in the port. I believe that only state-actors can conduct an attack like Triton or Stuxnet and not terrorists. No country now wants the retaliation from the U.S. if they were to blow up an LNG which would likely end up in full scale war, so they will likely stick with things that costs us money. Balakrishnan, A. (2016, February 17). The hospital held hostage by hackers. CNBC. https://www.cnbc.com/2016/02/16/the-hospital-held-hostage-by-hackers.html. Giles, M. (2020, April 2). Triton is the world’s most murderous malware, and it’s spreading. MIT Technology Review. https://www.technologyreview.com/2019/03/05/103328/cybersecurity-critical-infrastructure-triton-malware/. Heath It is difficult to say whether any one aspect of maritime cyber security is the most vulnerable and therefore the most susceptible to attacks or that there is any one aspect that worries me the most. There are too many vulnerabilities in the maritime industry that can affect daily operations. According to the Department of Homeland Security’s Cybersecurity and Infrastructure Security Agency, there are six main components of port operations at risk. The general facility access like the gates where personnel, vehicles and cargo enter the port where disruptions can cause congestion and slow operations. The terminal’s headquarters, specifically the data storage where information on ships, cargoes, clients are stored and could be manipulated in order to smuggle or evade taxes. The terminal headquarters specifically a ransomware attack that would hold the port hostage and disrupt operations. The operational technology systems that actually run the port like cargo handling equipment, pumps, and communications which could result in safety hazards, physical damages to the facility, and the disruption of general operations. Positioning, Navigation, and Timing that could cause ships to drift off course, cause collisions, block a navigation channel, or release a hazardous material. Similarly, the vessels themselves are at risk of being physically accessed, ransomed, data manipulated, or even lost entirely (DHS, 2020). I think the biggest threats to ports stem from criminal activity, those seeking direct financial gain through ransomware, and a physical attack from non-state actors. As Joel Snape points out in his article in the Maritime Executive, these groups have little to lose and everything to gain by their actions (Snape, 2021). -Heath Source(s): DHS. (2020, December). Port Facility Cybersecurity Risks Infographic. Cybersecurity and Infrastructure Security Agency CISA. https://www.cisa.gov/publication/port-facility-cybersecurity-risks. Snape, J. (2021, March 9). There’s No Margin for Error in Port Cyber Security. The Maritime Executive. https://www.maritime-executive.com/editorials/there-s-no-margin-for-error-in-port-cyber-security.
Why Choose Us
Top Quality and Well-Researched Papers
We always make sure that writers follow all your instructions precisely. You can choose your academic level: high school, college/university or professional, and we will assign a writer who has a respective degree.
Professional and Experienced Academic Writers
We have a team of professional writers with experience in academic and business writing. Many are native speakers and able to perform any task for which you need help.
Free Unlimited Revisions
If you think we missed something, send your order for a free revision. You have 10 days to submit the order for review after you have received the final document. You can do this yourself after logging into your personal account or by contacting our support.
Prompt Delivery and 100% Money-Back-Guarantee
All papers are always delivered on time. In case we need more time to master your paper, we may contact you regarding the deadline extension. In case you cannot provide us with more time, a 100% refund is guaranteed.
Original & Confidential
We use several writing tools checks to ensure that all documents you receive are free from plagiarism. Our editors carefully review all quotations in the text. We also promise maximum confidentiality in all of our services.
Customer Support 24/7
Our support agents are available 24 hours a day 7 days a week and committed to providing you with the best customer experience. Get in touch whenever you need any assistance.
No need to work on your paper at night. Sleep tight, we will cover your back. We offer all kinds of writing services.
No matter what kind of academic paper you need and how urgent you need it, you are welcome to choose your academic level and the type of your paper at an affordable price. We take care of all your paper needs and give a 24/7 customer care support system.
Admission and Business Papers
An admission essay is an essay or other written statement by a candidate, often a potential student enrolling in a college, university, or graduate school. You can be rest assurred that through our service we will write the best admission essay for you.
Editing and Proofreading
Our academic writers and editors make the necessary changes to your paper so that it is polished. We also format your document by correctly quoting the sources and creating reference lists in the formats APA, Harvard, MLA, Chicago / Turabian.
If you think your paper could be improved, you can request a review. In this case, your paper will be checked by the writer or assigned to an editor. You can use this option as many times as you see fit. This is free because we want you to be completely satisfied with the service offered.